Grand Challenges in CO2 Capture and Conversion

Document Type : Grand Challenges


Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349, Iran


CO2 and its emission control is one of the main challenges in climate change mitigation. There are various methods for CO2 capture, including physical and chemical technologies such as chemical looping, post-combustion, pre-combustion, reduction and bio-technologies. Besides these methods, there are methods to convert CO2 into value-added products. However, both approaches face challenges that limit their commercialization. In this paper, the challenges of CO2 capture and conversion are examined and pros and cons of the methods to remove these obstacles are studied. Here, as a result, four main challenges in CO2 capture and conversion were presented: (1) energy consumption of existing technologies and some alternatives, (2) fixed and operational costs, (3) insufficient activity, sustainability and economics of existing catalysts or microorganisms for CO2 utilization and conversion, and (4) carbon footprint in existing technologies. Also, it was concluded that the need for more reliable life cycle assessment data for zero carbon footprint in existing and future CO2 capture and conversion technologies is one of the most important concerns that should be addressed in future studies to explore creative solutions for this issue.

Graphical Abstract

Grand Challenges in CO2 Capture and Conversion


Ø CO2 as a major challenge in climate change.

Ø CO2 capture and conversion into value-added products.

Ø Energy, costs, effective catalysts, and carbon footprint as four main challenging issues.



Main Subjects

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